Private Passenger Automobile

Our private passenger automobile (PPA) experience related to insurance company, general agency, and regulatory clients for both preferred, standard, and non-standard programs.  Several of our principals came from carriers that write auto coverage, and one of our senior principals formerly worked for a large national reinsurer that reinsured books of auto business.  Our PPA experience includes:


  • Performing analyses of loss and loss adjustment expenses reserves and preparing supporting actuarial reports.
  • Providing Statements of Actuarial Opinion.
  • Assisting with company formation and licensing applications.
  • Developing rates and rules for new programs.
  • Assisting companies with data management and presentation to allow for efficient analysis in estimating reserves and monitoring emergence.
  • Preparing rate adequacy and rate structure analyses, including work related to introducing new programs and/or new rating structures/factors.
  • Assistance with the introduction of credit scoring into underwriting rules and rate structures.
  • Providing data services to agencies and supporting a company’s operations of an agency system, including monthly processing of premium and claims transactions and a bi-monthly update of policy data.
  • Providing data services to agencies, including market basket analyses and quote vs. bound sales analyses.
  • Preparing market rate comparisons and competitive analyses.


  • Examining large national carriers with significant personal auto programs, including one in the top three in the U.S.
  • We have reviewed numerous auto rate filings that contain these types of methodologies:
    • Generalized Linear Models (GLM)
    • Ensemble Decision Tree Methods
    • Ensemble GLM Methods
    • Usage-Based Insurance
    • Geographic Multi-variate Models
    • CARFAX/Vehicle History Models
    • Consumer Credit-Scoring Models
    • Price Optimization Models
    • Lifetime Expense Models
    • California Sequential Analyses
    • Territory Cluster Analyses
  • The auto filings we have reviewed have contained the following components:
    • Household Makeup Rating
    • Prior Policy Tiering
    • Credit-Based / Financial Tiering
    • Annual Mileage Programs
    • Usage-Based Rating Systems
    • Proprietary Vehicle Symbol Systems
  • Participation on rehabilitation team for a troubled auto and homeowners’ insurer on behalf of a state insurance department.

Non-Standard Automobile

  • Managing the loss reserving unit for a national non-standard auto insurer.
  • Providing audit support work for non-standard insurers that involved reviewing the appointed actuary’s work for reasonableness, add independent work and reasonability checks when necessary, and stay current on changes in the legal environment.
  • Providing reserve analyses, pricing analyses, rate filing assistance, and Actuarial Opinions for non-standard auto carriers.
  • Reviewing reinsurance submissions related to a large book of non-standard auto business, and producing a treaty loss pick for our reinsurance company client.
  • Providing financial exam assistance for auto insurers, including several non-standard carriers.
  • Providing expert testimony related to examination of a non-standard auto insurer group and in rate hearings.

Commercial Automobile

Our consultants have provided reserving and pricing assistance to numerous insurance carriers, self-insured corporations, and captives/risk retention groups across several relevant exposures, including: commercial automobile, garage-keepers liability, trucking, taxi, limousine, bus, and black car.  We have provided these services both as consultants and as insurance carrier employees.  Some highlights of our commercial auto experience include:

  • Feasibility study and pro forma for a long haul trucking RRG.
  • Pricing assistance for non-hired automobile exposures covered in a captive insurance company.
  • Reserve review in conjunction with an audit firm for a large commercial automobile insurer.
  • Assisted a large global professional services firm with their client’s troubled taxi/black car book of business.
  • Pricing and pro forma exhibits to cover taxi, limousine, and bus exposures in a client’s captive insurance company.
  • Reserving/funding studies for subsidiaries of a major overnight delivery company.
  • Annual mass transit reserves for a major public transportation authority.
  • Reserving and pricing assistance to private, public, and quasi-public entities that self-insure their commercial auto exposures.

Our commercial automobile experience is strengthened by our engagements with insurance regulators.  Our consultants have provided financial examination assistance and rate filings reviews related to numerous insurance companies including large national carriers with significant commercial auto programs.

For More Information


Peter Scourtis


Derek Chapman